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《战略之页》3月14日新闻

宝石导弹威胁以色列气田
Surface Forces: Yakhont Threatens Israeli Gas
March 14, 2014:? Israel recently admitted that it must prepare for the possibility that Hezbollah has received some Russian Yakhont missiles. This is a three ton missile designed to cripple large ships or, as Israel fears, one of their new offshore natural gas rigs. Russia pioneered the use of larger (up to three ton) supersonic “carrier killer” anti-ship missiles and Iran wants to buy them via Syria. The most common “carrier killer” is the Yakhont which is an 8.9 meter (27.6 foot) long, three ton missile with a 300 kg (660 pound) warhead and a 300 kilometer range. Russia has been building missiles like this since the 1970s but they are only popular with the few nations that have a need to destroy American aircraft carriers. Hezbollah wants to use Yakhont against any Israeli target it can reach and some of the Israeli offshore oil facilities are within range.
以色列最近承认其必须为真主党已获得俄罗斯宝石反舰导弹这一可能而做准备。这种三吨的导弹设计用于致残大型战舰,如以色列所担心的,还能致残其沿海新天然气钻探设备。俄罗斯开创了使用更大的(近3吨)超音速“航母杀手”反舰导弹的先河,伊朗亦想通过叙利亚购之。最常见的“航母杀手”就是宝石导弹,该弹长8.9米,全弹3吨,弹头300千克,射程300千米。俄罗斯自70年代就建造该类型导弹,但该弹只受到有摧毁美军航母需求的少数国家欢迎。真主党想用宝石导弹收拾其射程内的任何目标,而一些以色列近海石油设施刚好在射程内。
Even before this Yakhont scare Israel was establishing a special military force to protect the offshore facilities. A defense system is being built (at a cost of $700 million) in and around the facilities and shore installation s. It will cost $100 million a year to man and maintain these defenses. Some of the offshore gas wells are within range of rockets fired from Gaza or southern Lebanon (where Hezbollah does as it wants). The unguided rockets are not accurate enough to hit a gas well, unless dozens (or more) were fired at once (after than Israeli air power will be all over the launch sits). Guided missiles are another matter. Hezbollah can use their more accurate C-802 anti-ship missiles (range 120 kilometers). This is a Chinese weapon that Iran produces its own version of. It’s a 6.8 meter (21 foot) long, 360mm diameter, 682 kg (1,500 pound) missile, with a 165kg (360 pound) warhead. It can be jammed or intercepted, but equipping the offshore platforms with these devices and manning them 24/7 is expensive. The C-802 can only reach some of the Israeli gas rigs, but the Yakhont can reach all of them.
即使在这次宝石恐慌之前,以色列就正着手建立专用军力来保护其近海设施。在沿海设施和岸上装置内部以及周边,正在建一套防御系统(价值7亿美元)。操作和维护这些防御系统每年将花费1亿美元。一些近海气井在加沙或南黎巴嫩发射的火箭弹射程之内(真主党这么想也这么做的)。无制导的火箭弹不足以精确击中气井,除非几十个(或者更多)进行一次齐射(在那之后,以色列空中力量将到达发射区)。有制导的导弹就是另一回事了。真主党也可以使用他们更精准的C802反舰导弹(射程120千米)。这是一款伊朗自制版的中国武器。该弹长6.8米,直径360毫米,全弹682千克,弹头165千克。其可被拦截或干扰,但用这些装置装备近海平台并操作24/7却很昂贵(该句没明白什么意思,尤其是24/7,请赐教)。C802只能够到以色列一些气井,而宝石却可以全部够到。
Israel is not discussing the details of its offshore oil field defenses. That’s standard procedure when it comes to defending something so vulnerable against a lot of unpredictable threats. Israel is known to produce a wide range of sensors and military defensive systems. Much of this stuff is probably in use to defend the offshore gas fields. Israeli warships and patrol boats are regularly seen around the offshore gas operations. Israel also recently put into service its new Barak 8 system, which is designed for stopping anti-ship missiles. The Barak 8 is a 275 kg (605 pound) missile with a 60 kg (132 pound) warhead and a range of 70 kilometers. The warhead has its own seeker that can find the target despite most countermeasures. The missiles are mounted in a three ton, eight cell container (which requires little maintenance) and are launched straight up. The compact (for easy installation on a ship) fire control module weighs under two tons.
以色列并没有详细讨论其沿海油田防御问题。当需要对一些易受不可预测的威胁采取防御时,有标准程序可循。以色列已被知正在生产宽波段传感器和军事防御系统。大部分东西可能已经用于防卫近海气井。以色列的军舰和巡逻船定期出现在近海气田周围。以色列最近还将其新型巴拉克8系统入役,该系统用于阻挡反舰导弹。巴拉克8系统重275千克,弹头60千克,射程70千米。弹头自备的寻的器可以抵御大部分的反制措施以找到目标。导弹被装入三吨重的八联装发射箱(极少要求维护)中,并垂直发射。紧凑型(便于安装在船上)火控模块重量小于2吨。
Barak 8 is also being installed in the three Saar 5 class corvettes (also referred to as the Eliat class) that, because of their size, were built in the United States. The 1,075-ton vessels are 85.6 meters (281 feet) long, and carry an impressive amount of firepower: 64 Barak surface-to-air missiles, eight Harpoon (or Gabriel) anti-ship missiles,? two triple 12.75-inch torpedo tubes firing Mk 46 torpedoes, two 25mm Sea Vulcans, and a 20mm Phalanx CIWS (for destroying incoming missiles) and a helicopter. Top speed is 61 kilometers per hour and there are only 74 crew. These vessels entered service in 1993 and 1994. They are still perhaps the best surface combatants in the region.
巴拉克8系统还被安装于3艘萨尔5型护卫舰(还被称为以莱特级)上,由于该舰尺寸问题,由美国建造。1075吨的军舰为85.6米长,携带令人生畏的火力:64枚巴拉克面对空导弹,8枚鱼叉反舰导弹,2座3联装12.75英寸(324毫米,译者注)鱼雷发射管可以发射Mk46型鱼雷,2座25毫米海火神机关炮,1座20毫米密集阵近战武器系统(摧毁来袭导弹用),以及一架直升机。该舰最高时速61千米/小时,而舰员只有74名。这些护卫舰于93、94年服役。可能仍然是该地区最好的水面战舰。

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